Sweden

Brief description:

Energy and energy policy

Energy consumption in Sweden is mostly based on hydro- and nuclear power. Other important contributions are combined heat and power plants and district heating based on e.g. heat from waste handling and biogas. The fact that the CO2 emissions caused by power production are relatively low has leaded the focus on to other areas than CCS. There is for instance extensively growth of the use of green power and a huge amount of research projects are carried out about utilities of bio energy.

There has been little change in climate policy since 2011, although Sweden has increased energy and CO2 tax and it is currently developing a "carbon neutral by 2050" roadmap, which goes before government at the end of 2012. It has also produced an environmental technology strategy.

CCS

However, Swedish companies, institutes and universities have cooperation projects going on together with companies in both Norway and EU. CO2 capture from pressurized flue gas has been demonstrated at a pilot plant with authentic flue gas from Värtan Combined heat and power plant in Stockholm. The project has confirmed that pre -treatment of the flue gas is adequate for protecting the absorbent from degradation, that the CO2 capture efficiency is high (> 98%), that no harmful components are fed into the gas turbine, and that absorbent degradation is low. The project was carried out in 2007-2008 on Fortums CHP plant in Sthockholm. The technology used was the hot potassium carbonate process offered by the Norwegian technology company Sargas.

The Swedish power company Vattenfall has demonstrated carbon capture with the oxyfuel technology at several sites in Europe. These projects are described elsewhere.

Research

There are R&D projects going on between Swedish and Norwegian universities/institutes. For instance the Skagerrak CO2 project carried out by Chalmers University of Technology together with the Norwegian research institute Tel-tek and Telemark university collage. The project is partly industrial and public founded and establish knowledge about common challenges in the Skagerrak region. Other Swedish participants are among others Gøteborg Energy and Vattenfall. One of the interesting aspect is that large point sources in the Skagerrak region are evaluated and there is considered how well suited these are for CO2 capture. Among the point sources that are evaluated are Lysekil refinery, Borealis in Stenungsund, and two refineries and a waste combustion plant in Gøteborg

Ulcos
Ulcos(Ultra–Low Carbon dioxide Steelmaking) is a research & development initiative to enable drastic reduction in CO2 emissions from steel production. The consortium consists of steel companies, energy and engineering partners, research institutes and universities.

One method used is the so called Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace. This technology seperates the off gases, so that the useful components can be recycled back into the furnace and used as a reducing agent. In addition, the concept of injecting Oxygen into the furnace instead of preheated air, removes unwanted Nitrogen from the gas, and thereby facilitating Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage.

To experimentally test this concept a gas separation plant was constructed next to LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace in Luleå, Sweden.  The combination of the modified blast furnace and the gas separation plant was successfully tested in 2007.




Projects in Sweden:





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