The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently released its Fifth Assessment report, where they recognize that a widespread deployment of CCS is crucial to reach the climate goals for 2050.
The authors of the report at IPCC have used models to predict the likelihood of reaching 450 ppm CO2eq concentration (atmospheric concentration of CO2 consistent with reaching the 2-degree goal) by 2050 with or without carbon capture and storage (CCS) by looking at different industries. They found that several of the models were not able to reach this goal without CCS, which underlines the importance of deploying CCS on a large scale.
The report finds that CCS has not yet been deployed on a large scale, but suggest that incentives through regulations or sufficiently high carbon prices makes the initial investment worthwhile. There is also need for regulations for storage for the industry to make long-term decisions about the deployment of CCS.
Other barriers mentioned in the report are concerns about operational safety, integrity and transport risks. However, new knowledge and research ensures that developers should be able to handle these issues. A recent research report from RISCS also concluded that storing CO2 can be done safely.
Combining bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) is another solution to the climate challenges suggested by IPCC. BECCS produces negative carbon dioxide emissions, which makes it a key technology for lowering the CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The report claims that there is only limited evidence on the potential for large-scale deployment of BECCS and other carbon dioxide removal (CDI) methods, but ensuring the right incentives and regulations will secure sufficient development of CCS and BECCS to reach the 2-degree goal.